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The Seven Feasts of Jehovah: Jewish Calendar

Their relationship to Christians

The Jewish Calendar 2023 or Year 5784

Note that for a Jew the dates do not change - for example Chanukkah is the 25th of Kislev (9th month). What does change is the day in relation to the sun, because the Jewish calendar is not in sync with the sun, and hence the date in respect to the Gregorian calendar (which most in the world uses) does change. In this table the date is the date of commencement of the feast/holiday at sunset.
Year 5784 (2023) Description Verse Synopsis
Sunset of Monday 6 March until nightfall of Tuesday, 7 March 2023
14 Adar
Purim Esther 9 Celebration of the providence of God over his people on the eve of their planned destruction.
Sunset of Wednesday, 5 April until nightfall Thursday, 13 April 2023
15-22 Nisan
Passover (Pesach) Leviticus 23:4-8
Deut 16:6
Exodus 6:6-7
Exodus 11-12
A people under bondage requiring rescuing:
Egypt
The Lamb
The Blood
The Passover feast
Jesus Christ our Passover lamb 1 Cor 5:7
Heb 4:15
2 Cor 6:16
The antitype: Our Lamb Our priest, Our sacrifice  
Unleavened Bread Deut 16:3
1 Cor 5:7-8
Unleavened bread for 7 days
Feast for the redeemed
Old leaven and new
A type of the life of a believer – communion of saints
 
First fruits (the wave sheaf) Lev 23:9-14
Num 18:12
Exodus 23:19
The first fruits of the harvest is the Lords
The land flowing with milk and honey
Type: Christ resurrected
 
Christ the First Fruits 1 Cor 15:20
1 Cor 15:23
What must we do to be saved ( Acts 16:30)
Hope in Jesus Christ, risen from amongst the dead
The sufficiency of Christ's sacrifice found in the sheaf of first fruits, waved
 
Sunset Thursday 25 May until nightfall Saturday 27 May 2023
6-7 Sivan
The feast of Weeks (Shavuot) Leviticus 23:15-22
Ex 23:16
Num 28:26
The feast of weeks (festival of Revelation)
Two wave loaves
The leaven, but baked
The timing of the feast, a voluntary offering
Pentecost Acts 2:1
Galatians 3:28
Acts 15:14
Rom 11:25
We are all one in Christ Jesus – there is neither Jew nor Greek…
The Holy Spirit
The mystery of God revealed in the Church
The present interval - Summer
Sunset of Friday, 15 September
until nightfall of Sunday, 17 September 2023
1-2 Tishrei 5784
The feast of Trumpets (Rosh Hashanah) Lev 23:24-25
Num 29:1
Isaiah 18:3
John 12:24
Acts 15:14
Rom 11:25
The present interval – the day of Grace.
A time of little rain.
Jews return to their land
The time to come – ever present with the Lord
A great sound of a Trumpet Matt 24:31
1 Cor 15:51-52
1 Thess 4:16
The type - the day of rain, The type – trumpets
The awakening of Israel
The coming of the Lord
 
Sunset of Sunday, 24 September
until nightfall of Monday, 25 September 2023
10 Tishrei
Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) Leviticus 16; 23:26-32
Numbers 29:7
The types in the atonement.
The holiest place
The sacrifices
Christ offered once Hebrews 9:28
Hebrews 5, 7 & 10
Repentance of Jews
The superiority of Christ over the law
'Behold the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world'
 
Sunset of Friday, 29 September until nightfall of Friday, 6 October 2023
15-21 Tishrei
Tabernacles (Sukkot) Deut 16:13
Lev 23:27
Matt 6:10
Rev 14:14-20
Millennium - a time of joy and rejoicing
The corn, The wine, The wrath of God
Sunset of Friday, 6 October
until nightfall of Sunday, 8 October 2023
15 - 21 Tishrei
} Shemini Atzeret } Other Jewish, non-sacred feasts e.g. Rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem
} Simchat Torah
Sunset of Thursday, 7 December until nightfall of Friday, 15 December, 2023
22 - 23 Tishrei
Chanukah
1023 dates from < https://www.chabad.org/holidays/default_cdo/jewish/holidays.htm >

Feast Cycle and Calendar arrangement

March/April May/June July Aug Sept/Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb
Early rain The long hot Summer Late rain        
Nisan Iyar Sivan Tamuz Ab Elul Tishrei Chesvan Kislev Tevet Shebat Adar
Abib Ziv Sivan Tammuz Av Elul Ethanim Bul Kislev Tebeth Shevat Adar
Passover (14)
Unleavened Bread (15-21)*
Firstfruits (16)
  Feast of Weeks (Pentecost) (6)*       Trumpets (Jewish New Year) (1)
Day of Atonement (10)
Tabernacles (15-21)*
         
() Gives the day of month the Feast commences (at sunset)
*All men had to attend in Jerusalem (Deut 1616, Ex 2314)
Some alternative names/spellings for the months of the Hebrew calendar

Some notes on the characteristics of the Hebrew Calendar

The Jewish calendar is confusing because it initially followed the seasons and phases of the moon. Hence their names were just descriptions of what was happening  eg “Abib” meaning sprouting (corn), the first month, “Bul” meaning rain the 8th month. In Exodus 12:2 God demanded that the month of the Passover become the first month of the new year and was called Abib meaning “ear of corn” but after the captivity was called Nisan meaning ”beginning” e.g. Nehemiah 2:1. However, a glance at the Jewish calendar shows that new year (Rosh Hashanah) is celebrated in September or October in the month of Tishri. This is because there are two systems – one religious and one civil. This discord probably occurred after the exile. The beginning of each month was determined by the new moon and to account for the uneven number of lunar months in a year certain leap months were added periodically. This added further confusion, due to the complex rules applied to “leap months”.

Seven

The number seven is symbolic from the very first chapter of the bible and continues from the creation through to the judgements of God found in Revelation. Essentially it means completeness. Seven dominates our lives and dominated the lives of the Hebrews not only in their week, but also the Feasts that broke up the seasons. We see the Sabbath as being the seventh of the week, Pentecost is seven weeks after the beginning of the ceremonial year. The seventh month is the most sacred month celebrated by the Feast of Trumpets followed by the Day of Atonement and the Feast of Tabernacles. Every seventh year is a Sabbath year, and the year of Jubilee year was seven lots of seven years (which apparently was never celebrated – see Daniel).

Cycles

The year was divided into two cycles, defined by the Feasts: Passover to Pentecost, Pentecost to The Tabernacles, with three annual visits to the temple (Passover, Pentecost and Tabernacles). They needed to be present to offer a sacrifice and without being present the sacrifice could not be offered. However, since it was impossible for everybody to attend (except perhaps in the wilderness where the encampment was around the tabernacle) 24 ‘courses’ of men were set-up who represented Israel (1 Chronicles 23 etc).

Lunar years

The Hebrew calendar worked in lunar months, which if not corrected would have led to the month of Nisan not falling in Spring. Hence leap-months were introduced and from time to time, according to a set of practices, a thirteenth month (Ver-Adar) was inserted after the twelfth month and before the first. The practice ensured a Sabbatical year was never a leap year.

New Moons

The phenomena from which the days were counted was the appearance of the new moon. This allowed for the creation of a system to observe and declare the presence of a new moon, along with a communication system to ensure all, especially those in Jerusalem, learnt of it.

Updated Novemver 2022
Seven feasts of Jehovah\The Seven Feasts of Jehovah - Jewish Calendar


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